(Emmanuel Radnitzky, Philadelphia, USA 1890 – Paris, France 1976) From 1911 on, he studied at the Ferrer Center in New York, frequented A. Stieglitz’s gallery, held his first solo show, and met Duchamp. In 1920 Ray helped Duchamp make his first machine, one of the earliest examples of kinetic art, the Rotary Glass Plates, composed of glass plates turned by a motor. That same year Man Ray, Katherine Dreier, and Marcel Duchamp founded the Société Anonyme, an itinerant collection that in effect was the first museum of modern art in the U.S. In Paris from 1921 to 1940, he received many commissions for portraits and commercial work, and met Picasso and Dalí. A member of the dada and surrealist movements, in the 1920s and 1930s he participated in the most important events of both groups, made some films, and published his rayographs, images created without a camera. He obtained them by placing objects on light-sensitive photographic paper, stressing the importance of light and shadow rather than the object itself, giving his work a profound look. In the 1950s and 1960s he held important solo shows in Paris and London and published his autobiography. The Museum of Modern Art presented his work in 1973.