(Piraeus, Greece 1936. He lives and works in Rome, Italy) He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Rome. As a student, in 1960, he had his first solo show, titled L’alfabeto di Kounellis, at the Galleria La Tartaruga, Rome. In the 1960s, he introduced objects into his paintings as well as gold, earth, fire, sacks, and even live animals, and the canvas was replaced by doorways, bed frames, or windows. In 1967, he joined Celant’s Arte Povera movement and exhibited live horses at the Galleria Attico in 1969. In the 1970s Kounellis continued to build his vocabulary of materials, introducing smoke, shelving units, trolleys, blockaded openings, mounds of coffee grinds, and coal as indicators of commerce, transportation, and economics. These diverse fragments speak to general cultural history, while combining to form a rich and evocative history of meaning within Kounellis’s oeuvre. From the 1980s on, he has kept experimenting with combinations of odd materials and his ability to transform the immediate environment. His work has been shown all over the world.