(Nice, France 1928 – New York, USA 2005) Arman studied in Nice and at the Ecole du Louvre in Paris. His oeuvre was strongly influenced by Duchamp’s readymades and Schwitters’s Merzbild, and in turn became a strong influence on pop art. In 1954 he displayed the Cachets (assemblages of stamps and fabric), in 1957 the Allures (imprints made with objects dipped in paint), followed by the Coupés (cut-up objects) and the Colères (objects smashed and then mounted), acts of artistic creation through destruction that compelled the viewers to re-evaluate their ideas on beauty. In 1960 he signed Pierre Restany’s Manifesto of Nouveau Réalisme, supporting “new, sensitive, perceptive approaches to the real,” and started producing the Poubelles (garbage cast in resin into Plexiglas cases), later developed into Accumulations (arrangements of everyday objects in showcases, or welded objects), with which the artist ironically questions the waste character of mass products. He participated in Documenta 3 and Documenta 6 in Kassel and in the 1976 Venice Biennale, and received major retrospective exhibitions in 1991 at the Houston Museum of Fine Art, in 1998 at the Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, in 2002 at the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Nice.